Tuesday, December 30, 2008

So How Do Products and Price Lists Work in Dynamics CRM?

So this is a high level review of how products and price lists work in Dynamics CRM.

Products can be added to Opportunities, Orders, Quotes and Invoices but products can be sold to different customers for different amounts such as the case of retail customers and wholesale customers.

The deal with this, Dynamics CRM has the concept of price lists. Before you can add a product, you need to specify the currency and price list.

Price lists are made up of price list items. Price list items can be thought of as the combination of a product, a unit of measure and a price. For example, if I am selling soft drink, I can sell it wholesale or retail and I can also sell it by the can, six-pack or pallet. For each combination, we would assign a price and the individual combination make up a price list item.

To complicate matters further, each price list can only be assigned one currency. So if we sell our products in two countries and we want a wholesale and retail price list for each we need to create four price lists.

Just when we think we have a handle on all this we can also assign a currency to a product to signify the currency we buy it in. This, on the surface, sounds quite powerful. We can buy our cans of drink in, say, US dollars and sell them in Australian dollars. his is true but if you expect CRM to calculate a sell price based on a markup of the cost price you can only do this if the product and price list currencies match. CRM is not smart enough to take a US dollar buy price, convert it to Australian dollars using the exchange rate in the system and then apply a margin.

So let's put all this together. I sell cans of soft drink. I buy them in US dollars and sell them in Australian and New Zealand and, for those of you that didn't realise, both countries have their own currency. First of all I add my products to CRM. If I want to calculate my sell price based on some sort of margin of the cost price, I'm out of luck. If I was selling in one currency, I could convert the buy prices to this currency and then import the products with this converted cost price but as I'm selling in two currencies I will have no choice but to manually specify the sell price.

I also need to specify my units of measure. In this case we will say cans, six-packs and pallets.

I now set up my price lists. I'm selling in two currencies and I need a wholesale and retail list for both countries so this is four price lists: Australian wholesale, Australian retail, New Zealand wholesale and New Zealand retail. I assign them the appropriate currencies and then I add price list items. Essentially the number of price list items for a given price list will be the number of products you're selling multiplied by the units which you sell it in.

Let's say I sell four different soft drinks (cola, lemonade, orange and lime) using my three units of measure. Therefore each price list will have 12 price list items. Can of lime, six-pack of lime, pallet of lime etc. For each of these combinations, I'll assign a price in the currency of the price list.

So I've now set up my four price lists. Each one has its 12 price list items and I want to add a product to an opportunity. I create my opportunity and assign it a currency. The currency of the opportunity MUST match the currency of the price list. If this is the case, I can then add a product and the unit of measure and CRM will do the rest in terms of the price charged.

Incidentally, a lot of the heavy lifting for setting up products, price lists and price list items can be done via the import wizard.

How do I get the GUID in CRM?

So this is a quick and dirty trick for getting the GUIDs for a set of records in Dynamics CRM v3.

1) Create a view of the records you want the GUIDs for
2) Export as a Dynamic list
3) Right click on A2 and select 'Edit Query...'
4) A bunch of boxes will pop up. Close them as soon as they open
5) You will now see in your workbook an extra column has magically appeared on the end. These are your GUIDs

In v4 things have been made much simpler. Simply export as a dynamic worksheet and unhide the hidden column at the end which is your GUIDs.

Dynamic CRM's Address Book is broken

I discovered this about 6 months ago and I'm yet to see a fix for it. The theory goes that if you're running the Outlook client and you're writing an email, you can click, say, the 'To...' button, go to the CRM Contacts address book and add contacts directly to your email.

It almost works. If in the CRM options, on the address book tab you opt to only sync the contacts that you own to the address book, you will see a big fat nothing. A few of the other address books populate such as the CRM Users but nothing in the Contacts address book.

The only way to make it work is to sync down ALL contacts in CRM. This can be problematic if your CRM DB has millions of Contacts but, for the moment, this is the only option you have.

Wednesday, October 29, 2008

MobileMe for Business Apps is announced (Windows Azure)

As previously predicted, Microsoft have released their online platform for integrating business applications, amongst other things, Windows Azure.

The is Live Mesh on steroids and then some.

Exciting times ahead.

Saturday, October 18, 2008

Salesforce to cut prices


As the article suggests, the reason must be competition and it must be biting. My only question is how do they plan on cutting the price when their margin, on average, falls around the 5% mark? I'm thinking cutting their price by 5% won't do much for them.

The big expense for Salesforce is 'sales and marketing', so if you're an 'account manager' at salesforce its time to get that resume up to date. Cutting their sales and marketing function by 10%, while short-sighted and unimaginative, should do the trick.

Salesforce share price at time of writing? $31.59. If you bought Salesforce shares a year ago you would have done as well buying into an index fund tracking the Dow. Those that bought 3 years ago are still ahead though, for now.

Thursday, October 9, 2008

Salesforce.com goes down like a lead zeppelin

It is quite amazing what can happen in one month. Salesforce.com has plunged from $58.00 down to $36.50. This is a drop of 37%. In comparison, Microsoft and Sage have dropped around 15%. As the winds change, so do the financial advisors with recommendations of 'Buy' quickly switching to 'Underperform' (http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2008/10/07/ap5521900.html )

What will happen now? My take is it has not yet reached the basement.

P/E ratio is still obscene (133 if we believe msnmoney, over 300 by my calculations).

Revenue growth is, in all likelihood, going to be hit by the fun and games that is the global slowdown therefore any expectation of future earnings is going to dry up. This leaves us with the tangible book value of $3.55. Yes, I am saying that the Salesforce.com share price could drop to the price of a bottle of beer, although the die-hards will probably keep it above $20.

I think it would also be fair to question whether Salesforce.com are going to make that magic $1b this year that Benioff keeps banging on about. Anything less than 30% revenue growth and it ain't going to happen. Good luck with that.

However, the bigger problem for SalesForce is their growth is funded through borrowing, or more precisely, share issues. Based on my numbers, their sustainable growth rate (measure of how much a company can grow without borrowing) is shy of 5%. To achieve the double-digit growth rate of the past, SalesForce will be either issuing more shares or borrow money. Given no-one is lending money I'm guessing more shares will hit the cautious market.

Saturday, September 13, 2008

Intuit jumps into the CRM pond

The maker of QuickBooks has decided they also want some of the CRM pie:

Good luck to them. The more competition the better. Will it work? History is against them.

Microsoft used to have an integration piece between CRM and Great Plains but this disappeared in a whimper with version 4 ('coming real soon' is the official line). There is nothing for the other ERPs in the Dynamics stable. I'm guessing they have given up on direct connection and push folk towards BizTalk (prediction of the week: Watch this space from Microsoft. There is a chasm here waiting to be filled by way of an online integration piece (think MobileMe but for business apps) and from what I'm seeing and hearing Microsoft are moving the pieces to make this happen).

NetSuite has probably had the most success bringing them together but despite huge marketing campaigns they haven't made much of a dent in the CRM space.

Sage has ERP systems and CRM systems but more often than not their customers have one or the other and integration is ad hoc. The exception would be Sage CRM, which is an afterthought of its associated accounting system. While their focus is on Sage CRM and not on the more mature SalesLogix it will be Sage's version of NetSuite.

The first company to nail the CRM-ERP consolidation will be the obvious choice for new businesses (existing companies won't swap out their ERP, its too much like hard work). Given Intuit's SFA module is still in beta I'm guessing this isn't it but there is always version 2.0...

Friday, September 12, 2008

Valuing Salesforce.com and its contemporaries

This is sort of a follow-on from my previous post. Should Salesforce.com be added to the S&P 500? Those in favour would cite giants such as Microsoft, IBM and Apple as already being part of the 'club'. Personally I think it is folly because, in my opinion, Salesforce.com is overvalued and soon to go down like a lead zeppelin. At which point another stock will have to be brought in to fill the gap.

So how do we know whether a share is worth what the market is paying for it? This is a really difficult question with no clear answer and this is why share prices jump around as much as they do. Let's compare Salesforce.com with a couple of CRM rivals, say Microsoft (Dynamics CRM) and Sage (Sage SalesLogix). The comparison is not brilliant as both Microsoft and Sage do much more than CRM and both allow for on-premise CRM. However, it will give some insight.

Here are some common indicators of share value:

P/E ratio

The most widely known and probably most used. This is the price of the stock divided by the profit. There are a number of ways to interpret this but one way is to see it as the number of years it will take for a share to double your money. For example, if I buy a share for $6 and it has a P/E ratio of 3, then I know it is making a profit of $2 every year. This profit will either get ploughed back into the business, effectively increasing the share value by a similar amount or get directly paid to me as a dividend. Therefore in 3 years I'll either have $6 of dividends in my pocket and a share worth $6 or a share worth $12.

From www.msnmoney.com:

P/E ratio of Salesforce.com: 200 (doing the calculation by hand I get closer to 500)
P/E ratio of Microsoft: 14
P/E ratio of Sage: 16

So looking at this suggests that it would, at the current earnings levels, take you 200 years to double your money on a Salesforce.com share. For the others, around 15 years. Why would anyone invest in a company that is going to take 200 years to return your money? If there is anyone out there who thinks this is a good deal, give me your money and I promise to double it in 100 years, twice as fast!

The reason Salesforce.com is still a darling of the stockmarket is because it is speculated that this P/E ratio will drastically change, that is the 'E' will dramatically increase, sending the ratio plummeting and giving lots of shareholders pots of cash. Being old enough to remember the burst of the tech bubble, I'm inclined to think it will be the 'P' that will plummet, bringing the P/E in line with its contemporaries and sending all those speculators to the poor house.

Tangible book value

This is how much the physical assets of the business are worth, that is. How much money, per share would you generate by selling everything you possibly could of the business. The 'distance' between the share price and the tangible book value also give an indication expected future revenues.

Salesforce.com: $3.55 (price at writing $58.00)
Microsoft: $2.43 (price at writing $27.34)
Sage: -0.55 pounds (price at writing 204.75 pounds)

First of all, Sage's negative means their physical assets (buildings, cash etc.) do not cover their debts. If Sage went under tomorrow, based on these numbers, you'd be out of pocket 200-odd pounds.

For all three, the price is much higher than the value of the assets. This is because the share price also factors in expected earnings. From the P/E ratio, we know investors are expecting big things on this front for Salesforce.com. If either of these stocks went under, you'd be around $25 out of pocket for Microsoft and $55 out of pocket for Salesforce.com

Projected revenues

Here, I am just looking at the last four years of revenue growth. An argument could be made that previous market conditions are irrelevant to the future fortunes of the companies but I'll leave such speculations to others.

Again, using msnmoney.com:

Last five years of revenue growth for Salesforce.com (2008-2005): 51%, 60%, 76%, 84%
Last five years of revenue growth for Microsoft (2008-2005): 18%, 15%, 11%, 8%
Last five years of revenue growth for Sage (2007-2004): 24%, 23%, 10%, 23%

If I was an investor in Salesforce.com (which I'm not), given the high P/E ratio, I'd want this growth to be trending the other way because up until now, with no major rivals they were still slowing down, in terms of growth, at about 10% per year. By my rough back of the envelope calculations, assuming the share price of Salesforce.com remains static, the best we could hope for would be to get revenues up to a point where the P/E ratio comes down to about 100 which is still ridiculously high.

Now that Dynamics CRM is on the scene pushing hard I'm thinking this will also do Salesforce.com's revenue growth no favours.


Revenue (the money coming in) and earnings (the profit made) are linked by the margin. That is, how much profit is made for every dollar received. If Salesforce.com could dramatically increase their margin, they could maintain the same revenues and massively increase their earnings, justifying their P/E ratio.

Going back to msnmoney:

Last five years of pre-tax margins for Salesforce.com (2008-2005): 6%, 3%, 9%, 5%, 4%
Last five years of pre-tax margins for Microsoft (2008-2005): 39%, 39%, 41%, 42%, 33%
Last five years of pre-tax margins for Sage (2007-2004): 19%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%

First of all, it is pretty clear, if you want to make large profits, do not host software for other people, the margins just aren't there. The advantage is that Salesforce.com is starting from such a low base, it would possibly be easier for them to double their margins. However, there is no indication in these numbers this is likely to happen soon so again I'm left scratching my head why people like this stock.

Free Cash Flow to Equity

A long phrase for a relatively simple concept. Basically, this is the cash generated for the business. This differs to profit in that with credit terms and the like what I report as profit may not actually be yet in my hand.

Looking at the cash flow statement we see that all of them generate their cash from their business and not from borrowing or investing.

In terms of free cash flow, the calculation is quite involved so I'll give a summary of the situation.

Microsoft and Sage both have had healthy free cash flow for the last couple of years. The situation is markedly different for Salesforce.com. Salesforce.com is yet to generate a positive free cash flow. They can talk about revenue growth and subscriptions as much as they like but when it comes to cash they have a problem in that more goes out than comes back to the investor.

There may be good reasons for investors to think that in the short term the Salesforce.com shares will go up but in the long term I can see nothing but a big bubble waiting to burst.

It is an ill-wind turns none to good: Salesforce.com makes the S&P 500

So the big news for Salesforce.com this week is it has made the S&P 500, replacing Freddie Mac (http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2008/09/10/ap5410713.html).

So what does all this mean? Firstly, what is the S&P 500? This is a collection of 500 companies which together are monitored as an indicator of the health of the US economy. Making the cut means a small collection of people think your company is a better indicator of the US economy than another company, in this case, Freddie Mac.

Making the cut says nothing about the inherent worth of the organisation and, in principal, should have no effect on the price of the share. However, it will for a couple of reasons:
  1. Index fund managers: If I manage a collection of stocks which are representative of an index (called an index fund), if that index is the S&P 500, I'll need to off load my Freddie Mac shares and buy a load of Salesforce.com shares. This will temporarily inflate the price of a stock (and similarly depress the price of the stock leaving the S&P 500)
  2. People who attribute the 'club' more meaning and speculators who know the index fund managers will be buying big: The first group will buy because they think the 'club' makes the stock more valuable or safe. The second will buy as soon as possible because they know the fund managers will buy big and hopefully artificially send the price higher at which point the speculators will get out making a quick buck.
Conclusion: Congrats to Salesforce.com for growing so quickly and becoming a 'company of significant interest' in the US economic landscape. Will it make me run out and buy big? Not a chance.

Friday, August 1, 2008


I'm a CRM consultant, based in Sydney, Australia who has worked with many CRM systems and now find myself as a Dynamics CRM specialist. To this end I've finally succumbed to writing a CRM blog to add to the growing pool of them out in the wild.

My posts will be infrequent and I'll try to only write when I have something of general interest rather than indulge in writing for my own amusement.